A electroneuromyography (ENMG) It is a very important medical examination in the field of neurology and physiotherapy, which is usually requested to assess the functioning of the body’s nerves and muscles.
It is a procedure that allows you to identify and diagnose a wide range of neurological and muscular conditions. In addition, it provides extremely valuable information that directly assists in the proper treatment of patients.
However, if you still have doubts about this exam, rest assured that in this article, we will explain it to you in detail. what is electroneuromyographyhow it is performed, what are its clinical applications and all the benefits it offers to patients.
What is Electromyography?
A electroneuromyographyalso known by the acronym ENMG, is an electrophysiological test that combines two techniques: electromyography (EMG) and neurography.
While EMG records the electrical activity of muscles, neurography evaluates nerve conduction. Together, these two techniques give very detailed information about the functioning of the peripheral nerves and the muscles associated with them.
|Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)||Progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.||Decreased muscle activity, fasciculations and fibrillations.|
|Carpal tunnel syndrome||Compression of the median nerve in the wrist which can cause pain, numbness and tingling in the hand.||Reduced nerve conduction velocity and increased muscle activity.|
|Espondilose cervical||A degenerative condition of the neck that can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms.||Reduced nerve conduction velocity and increased muscle activity.|
|Guillain Barre syndrome||Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.||Decreased muscle activity, fasciculations and fibrillations.|
|Lambert-Eaton Syndrome||Autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction.||Increased muscle activity and decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation.|
|Muscular dystrophy||Group of genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness and atrophy.||Decreased muscle activity, increased muscle tone, and myopathic changes on needle EMG.|
|Myasthenia gravis||Autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction.||Increased muscle activity and decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation.|
|Peripheral neuropathy||Group of disorders that affect the peripheral nerves.||Reduced nerve conduction velocity and increased muscle activity.|
How is Electromyography performed?
1 – Patient preparation
Before the exam, the patient is informed about the procedure and instructed to follow some guidelines, such as avoiding the use of lotions or creams in the areas to be examined, in addition to informing the doctor about the use of specific medications.
2 – Electromyography (EMG)
The first part of the test is electromyography, in which electrodes are inserted into selected muscles to record their electrical activity. Then, the patient is asked to perform some specific movements so that muscle signals can be monitored.
3 – Neurografia
In the second stage, neurography is performed. Then electrodes are placed on the skin to stimulate the nerves with small electrical impulses, while other electrodes record the response of those nerves. This allows assessment of the conduction of nerve signals to be made.
4 – Analysis of the results
Finally, after completing the exam, the data are analyzed by the specialist doctor, who will interpret the results and make an accurate diagnosis for the patient.
What is Electroneuromyography used for?
A electroneuromyography has several important clinical applications, such as:
- Diagnosis of Neurological Diseases: ENMG is often used to diagnose neuromuscular disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myasthenia gravis, among other conditions.
- Evaluation of Nerve Injuries: After traumatic injuries, such as car accidents or falls, ENMG can be used to assess the severity of the nerve injury and guide treatment.
- Monitoring of Neuromuscular Diseases: In addition, patients with chronic diseases that affect the nerves and muscles can benefit from periodic monitoring through electroneuromyography, allowing control of the progression of the condition and adjustment of the treatment.
- Preoperative and Postoperative: Before neurological or orthopedic surgery, ENMG can be used to establish a baseline and, after surgery, to assess the recovery and effectiveness of the procedure.
What are the benefits of Electroneuromyography?
Now that you know what the electroneuromyographylet’s better understand what are the benefits of having this exam when requested by your doctor:
- Diagnostic Accuracy: First of all, ENMG is an accurate and reliable test that allows your doctor to have access to detailed information about the functioning of your nerves and muscles, helping in the diagnosis of diseases and important medical conditions and facilitating the appropriate treatment of several conditions.
- Targeted Treatment: Based on the results of electroneuromyography, doctors can prescribe specific and personalized treatments, thus optimizing the patient’s recovery.
- Complication Prevention: Finally, the exam also helps to identify neuromuscular problems early, allowing interventions before more serious complications can develop.
Finally, as you can see, the electroneuromyography is a fundamental diagnostic tool in the field of neurology and physiotherapy, which provides physicians with access to super information about the functioning of nerves and muscles in the body.
What diseases does electroneuromyography detect?
Electroneuromyography (ENMG) detects a variety of neuromuscular diseases, including peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), polyneuropathy, herniated disc compressing nerves, among other conditions that affect the body’s nerves and muscles.
How is the electroneuromyography exam done?
The electroneuromyography exam involves inserting electrodes into the skin and fine needles into the muscles. The patient may experience mild discomfort during the insertion of the needles and the electrical stimulation of the nerves. However, the procedure is generally tolerable and safe, and the duration of pain is short.
Do you need preparation for an electroneuromyography?
Yes, preparation is necessary before performing the electroneuromyography. The patient should avoid using lotions or creams on the areas to be examined, inform the physician about the use of specific medications, and follow other guidelines provided by the medical team to ensure the effectiveness and safety of the examination.