Types of blindness: what are they? Understand what precautions we should take to prevent eye diseases

Blindness is a condition that can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender or ethnicity. Unfortunately, we often only value our vision when we lose it, and only then do we realize how important it is to take care of it from an early age. The good news is that part of eye diseases can be prevented with good lifestyle habits and, in many cases, vision loss can be stopped if the problem is diagnosed early.

In this text, the ophthalmologist Paulo Dantas discuss the precautions we should take to prevent eye diseases and explains some simple measures that can make all the difference in eye health. Follow!

What are the main types of blindness?

According to the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB), of a total of 771 million people with visual impairment, 90% of them can have their disability prevented or treated. The main types of blindness are:

– partial blindness;
– total blindness;
– night blindness: inability or difficulty seeing in low-light environments;
– childhood blindness;
– amblyopia: it can affect one or both eyes and is also known as “lazy eye”.

In addition, it is important to mention the diseases that can lead to blindness and that can be treated:

– Cataract: corrected only by surgery;
– refractive errors: easily treated by wearing glasses or contact lenses;
– presbyopia, or difficulty reading up close: can also be treated with glasses.

On the other hand, there are eye diseases that need continuous treatment. According to the expert, they affect around 77 million people around the world! As it is not possible to predict how much of the view will be preserved, these conditions can be considered more serious diseases. Are they:

– visual loss due to age-related macular degeneration;
– glaucoma;
– diabetic retinopathy.

Cataracts, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy: what are the causes?


Cataracts are an eye condition that can have several causes, age being the most common. In this case, the disease is known as a primary cataract. However, there are also secondary cataracts, which can occur due to trauma, prolonged use of medications such as corticosteroids, inflammation and other factors. Dr. Dantas also mentions congenital cataracts, a type that is already present from birth. Double vision, sensitivity to light, difficulty seeing clearly are some of the symptoms of cataracts.

Already Glaucoma is a complex condition caused by increased pressure on the eye, affecting the optic nerve, causing damage to nerve fibers and possibly leading to progressive loss of cells in the retina and visual field. There are different types of glaucoma, such as primary, open-angle and closed-angle, and secondary, associated with trauma, use of medication and inflammation, in addition to congenital. In glaucoma, the worsening of vision happens gradually, starting with the loss of peripheral vision, until it reaches blindness.

Finally, diabetic retinopathy which, as the name suggests, is associated with diabetes not controlled by medication use. About this disease, Dr. Paulo states: “Patients without medical care and periodic evaluations of the fundus of the eye have an increased risk of blindness”. Therefore, to avoid this problem, it is essential to seek medical help and follow the measures indicated to the letter to control diabetes.

What care can be taken with eye health?

The main recommendation for preventing vision problems is to have regular eye exams with an expert and to know your family’s eye health history. It is also necessary to adopt day-to-day care, such as:

– wear sunglasses;
– do not scratch your eyes to avoid irritation and contact with bacteria, viruses and dirt;
– avoid excessive use of eye drops;
– do not self-medicate;
– avoid spending a long time using devices with screens, such as computers, cell phones and televisions.

“It is worth mentioning that examinations with people who are not doctors, such as optometrists, increase the chance of your disease not being diagnosed or even having its treatment delayed, increasing the chances of blindness sharply”, concludes Dr. Dantas.

Source: cuidadospelavida.com.br

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