To achieve the GHSA 2024 Overarching Target, a country must complete an evaluation of health security capacity. Therefore, the first measurement is the Joint External Evaluation (JEE).

Subsequent annual scores are measured using WHO States Parties Annual Report (SPAR) data (average technical area scores are converted from a 100-point scale to a five-point scale) for the 13 Technical Areas that overlap with the JEE. The remaining six technical areas are supplemented using the Global Health Security Index (GHSI). The GHSI is used in JEE technical areas where there are no SPAR equivalents (Antimicrobial Resistance, Biosafety and Biosecurity, Immunization, Linking Public Health and Security Authorities, Medical Countermeasures and Personnel Deployment, and Reporting). NTI’s GHSI is publicly available, measured biennially as of 2019, and provides a score out of 100 for each of these areas. Therefore, the GHSI is used to provide a more recent score for a country in these technical areas.

This methodology has been developed as a reasonable, reproducible estimate of progress toward the GHSA 2024 overarching target using publicly available data and is not intended to be a rigorous analysis.

A full breakdown of the technical area conversions and their sources can be found below.

Each year, the number of countries with five or more technical areas listed as “Demonstrating Capacity” are counted. “Demonstrating Capacity” correlates to a score of ≥4 according to the JEE.

Scores are converted from a 100-point scale to a 5-point scale.

The data for this measurement was obtained from the World Health Organization’s Strategic Partnership for Health Security and Emergency Preparedness Portal (WHO SPH) ( and from the Nuclear Threat Initiative’s (NTI) Global Health Security Index ( We thank WHO and NTI for making their data available and thank the Accountability and Results Task Force for the development of these measurements.

Conversion Formulas

SPAR Conversions

GHSI Index Conversions*

*JEE and SPAR do not allow for scores of less than 1/5 (JEE) or less than 20/100 (SPAR) while the GHSI does.