Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men. What causes it to appear? Do dietary supplements help as a means of prevention? What will a man face after surgery, if necessary?
Tells Chief Oncologist of the Russian Ministry of Health, General Director of the National Medical Research Center (NMRC) of Radiology of the Russian Ministry of Health, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Andrey Kaprin:
– Prostate cancer (PCa) can develop in any man. But at particular risk are people aged 50+ with a family history (those whose relatives were diagnosed before the age of 55), with hereditary mutations (in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes) and overweight.
There are also no proven ways to prevent prostate cancer. Despite the huge number of dietary supplements and nutritional supplements that are positioned as preventive measures, not a single study has confirmed their effectiveness.
Lidia Yudina, aif.ru: Is cancer associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
– There is a lot of talk about the fact that they serve as a precursor to prostate cancer, but there are no randomized (randomly distributed. – Ed.) clinical studies confirming the connection between the development of prostate cancer and STDs. However, there are scientific publications devoted to the influence of high-risk human papillomavirus and herpes viruses on the incidence of prostate cancer. They indicate that this is possible.
– Does having prostate adenoma mean that cancer will develop in the future?
– Cancer and prostate adenoma are two different diseases that develop in different areas of the same organ. There is no cause-and-effect relationship between them. In this case, both of these diseases can be diagnosed simultaneously in one patient. Therefore, before starting treatment for an adenoma, it is necessary to exclude an oncological diagnosis.
How to detect and fight
– What tests can detect prostate cancer?
– Early diagnosis is based on determining the level of PSA in the blood (prostate specific antigen – see help), digital rectal and transrectal examination (ultrasound of the prostate). Although the PSA level may increase for various reasons, the patient is still prescribed an ultrasound, MRI of the pelvic organs with contrast, and, if necessary, a biopsy.
– The main method of treating cancer is surgery. Are potency and fertility preserved after surgery?
– If the diagnosis is made at an early stage and the tumor has appropriate histological characteristics, doctors resort to surgery that preserves the neurovascular bundles responsible for potency. Erectile function after such intervention is usually preserved. However, fertility is lost during treatment for prostate cancer. If this issue is relevant for the patient, it is necessary to consult a reproductologist.
Another gentle way to treat localized (not extending beyond the organ) prostate cancer is brachytherapy. This is a high-precision method of radiation therapy in which a radioactive source (in the form of needles or capsules) is immersed into the tissue of a malignant tumor. Modern technologies make it possible to accurately calculate the therapeutic dose of radiation, visually control the introduction of the source and distribution within the tumor, therefore, with brachytherapy, it is usually possible to avoid dysfunction of critical organs.
– Is the effectiveness of brachytherapy comparable to surgery?
– Yes. At the same time, preparation, treatment and rehabilitation take significantly less time, and the quality of life of patients does not change both during and after treatment. The scope of application of this method is constantly expanding. Currently, the National Medical Research Center of Radiology operates a Brachytherapy Center, where clinical testing is carried out and new protocols are being developed using brachytherapy for the treatment of malignant neoplasms of the breast, inoperable pancreatic tumors, and potentially resectable tumor lesions of the liver.
What you need to know about PSA?
Normally, a small amount of PSA is present in the blood of most men. But if the PSA level is more than 4 nanograms per milliliter, you should immediately consult a specialist.
The analysis is prescribed by a urologist, oncologist or therapist if the patient has symptoms of prostate pathologies, as well as upon visual detection (ultrasound or MRI) of the presence of a tumor in the groin area.