Glaucoma is considered the second leading cause of blindness in the world, with an estimated incidence of 1% to 2% of the general population, increasing this percentage after 40 years of age.
The main factors associated with the onset of glaucoma they are:
- black ethnicity;
- IOP increased;
- Diabetes Mellitus,;
- Family history of glaucoma;
- Decreased corneal thickness.
Diabetes Mellitus is considered a global public health problem, growing and important, regardless of the degree of development of countries. AND characterized by glucose concentration increased in blood may be a consequence of insufficient insulin secretion, resistance to insulin action, or both. Before we understand more about the relationship between glaucoma and diabetes, it is important to know what types of Diabetes² are.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome of multiple origin, resulting from the lack of insulin and/or the inability of insulin to adequately exert its effects. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is responsible for maintaining glucose metabolism and the lack of this hormone causes a deficit in glucose metabolism and, consequently, diabetes. Characterized by permanently high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia).
Learn about the two types of diabetes:
Diabetes type 1:
In some people, the immune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. Soon, little or no insulin is released into the body. As a result, the glucose stays in the blood instead of being used for energy. Or Type 1 diabetes corresponds to 5 and 10% of cases of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is marked by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and/or action in target tissues. The prevalence and incidence of this type of diabetes have been increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Healthy eating and physical exercise are very important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, providing a better quality of life.
What is the relationship between diabetes and glaucoma:
Glaucoma and diabetes mellitus are two common chronic diseases in Europe and worldwide that require intensive care. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been discussed that favor the development of glaucoma, especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In addition to purely ophthalmic endocrine therapy, psychological burden of two chronic diseases should also be considered and included in the individual therapeutic plan.
I was diagnosed with Glaucoma. What to do?
In all cases of glaucoma diagnoses, it is fundamental that the patient understands the importance of adhere to treatment appropriately. Regarding drug treatment, for example, the patient must understand that the daily application of eye drops will be something permanent in your day to day, and that this routine cannot be broken in any way. Another fundamental factor for those who have a diagnosis of glaucoma is the frequent consultation with the ophthalmologistto assess the degree of disease progression and response to treatment.
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