Brown spots on the skin of varying size, color saturation and appearance can be common. Often they are considered a sign of age-related changes. But in fact, it can also occur in young people. What causes their development and is it possible to somehow overcome them, aif.ru told Dermatocosmetologist at the Center for Innovative Medicine Rosa Gerliani.
Pigmentation is a fairly common cosmetic problem that occurs in both women and men. It occurs due to the large accumulation of melanin pigment in the layers of the skin, which can be the result of various processes in the body: from natural aging to hormonal changes. However, modern cosmetology offers a range of effective procedures that can reduce the severity of hyperpigmentation and restore an even skin tone.
What is the essence of the problem?
Age spots, as a rule, are flat areas that have a darker shade than the rest of the skin, and due to the increased synthesis and accumulation of melanin in certain areas, the hyperpigmentation zone can have different sizes and occur in different areas of the face and body. Spots can be single or multiple.
Several elements are responsible for the tone of our skin:
- pigment melanin (protects the skin from the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation, has antioxidant properties that help reduce the level of free radicals),
- carotene (provides regeneration and slows down the aging process),
- hemoglobin (responsible for the natural color of the epidermis).
Due to a violation of the production of melanin, the skin changes its usual shade, resulting in the appearance of age spots.
Why does it occur?
There are different causes of pigmentation:
1. Traumatization. Often, pigment spots appear in places of abrasions and cuts. This is due to excessive production of melanin in the affected area.
2. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet light. Frequent exposure to the sun can lead not only to the appearance of a tan, but also to serious pigmentation, because during the action of the sun’s rays the cell structure is disturbed, which leads to the accumulation of melanin in certain areas.
3. Hormonal failure. Often, the cause of the appearance of age spots can be a hormonal imbalance, because sex hormones have a significant impact on the process of cell division and melanin synthesis.
4. Taking certain drugs: antibiotics, antidepressants, etc.
5. Violation of blood circulation.
6. Hereditary factor.
Skin conditions such as acne can also cause pigmentation.
How to deal with hyperpigmentation
There are a large number of methods for removing pigmentation. One of the most popular methods is chemical peels. Chemical exfoliation is most often performed using acid-based products (glycolic, retinoic). They allow you to gently exfoliate the upper stratum corneum and achieve a significant lightening of the pigmented areas. More often these procedures are performed in the autumn-winter period, the period of minimum solar activity.
Another option is injection techniques, such as mesotherapy and biorevitalization. To solve the problems of hyperpigmentation, injections based on hyaluronic acid with various microelements are introduced into the skin, that is, most often we are talking about biological products. This is not just hyaluronic acid by itself, along with it, amino acids, peptides and vitamins enter the skin. An excellent effect when using this type of fight against pigmentation is observed after only three sessions. Efficiency depends on the drugs: there are more, and there are less intense ones.
An alternative to injection methods is the treatment of pigmentation with plasma. Its essence boils down to the injection of autoplasma (the patient’s own part of the blood) into problem areas of the skin. Due to this, regenerative processes are launched in the tissues, which leads to the renewal of the skin. The elimination of hyperpigmentation is carried out at the expense of the body’s own resources, so the technique is considered safe.
Low intensity laser infrared irradiation also helps to get rid of blemishes on the skin. The essence of the method is the effect of infrared radiation on the skin, as a result of which the elasticity of cell membranes is restored, the process of skin regeneration is stimulated, and excess melanin is eliminated. The technique allows you to deal with skin defects without damaging it.
Phototherapy is one of the most popular and effective treatments today. The essence is reduced to exposure to the stain with the help of high-intensity light. Light flashes affect areas with a high content of melanin and avoid long-term rehabilitation. It is also called IPL therapy.
More often, specialists combine several methods at once to achieve the maximum effect: hardware cosmetology and injection. The program is signed individually for each patient, plus the right home care is selected.
To prevent the development of age spots, which are more difficult to remove than to prevent them in principle, it is worth following a number of recommendations:
- Be sure to use SPF and moisturizers. And not only in the summer.
- Refusal of excessive sunburn.
- The use of well-chosen cosmetics. Such cosmetics create less problems on the skin, solves the problem of dehydration.
- Timely treatment of diseases of internal organs. Very often, the appearance of hyperpigmentation may be due to an incorrectly collected anamnesis. It is necessary to undergo a full examination in order to understand the reasons why the skin changes occurred.
- Skin rashes cannot be removed on their own.
Simple measures will allow you to maintain an even skin tone and its healthy appearance for a longer time.