Find out what summer diseases are and how to prevent them

7 minutes to read

Ah, the summer! Warmth, sun, sea, pool, beach — there are many words that come to mind as soon as we think of this season. However, unfortunately, we also have to worry about summer illnesses so that nothing spoils our vacation!

These heat illnesses are problems that often strike people when temperatures are at their highest. The good news is that many of them can be easily prevented, as long as we have the necessary information to do so.

And then? You don’t want your vacation to go down the drain, do you? That’s why we’ve prepared content that will show you some details about summer illnesses and help you keep them far away from your whole family. Good reading!

What are the main summer diseases?

Check out some of the main illnesses that can affect our health with high temperatures and learn how to prevent each one of them. Attention and focus on sunscreen!


Because we are outdoors more often during the summer, the chances of contracting conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eyes) are much greater. The main symptom is redness in the eyes. In addition, itching, burning and pain in the region may be present, as well as a lot of eye discharge.

This problem can be caused by viruses and bacteria, in addition to trauma. In summer, sand contact with the eyes is a relatively common reason for inflammation. Treatment, therefore, will depend on the cause of the problem. It is possible, for example, that the doctor prescribes antibiotic eye drops for your case.

The best prevention for conjunctivitis is to avoid direct contact with people who have the problem. Also, sanitizing your hands well and avoiding scratching your eyes while on the street are valid measures.


Another common problem is otitis, known as an ear infection. This problem is very annoying and usually affects children more often. The main symptom is, of course, ear pain. It can be quite strong, almost disabling, and accompanied by a throbbing sensation. In addition, secretions can be observed.

The main cause of otitis as a summer disease is water entering the ear canal, causing inflammation. To prevent this problem, it is recommended that people swim with caps in order to protect their ears and prevent water from entering the channel.

The treatment of otitis will depend a lot, and may involve the application of medications directly into the ear canal or the administration of systemic medications – that is, orally.


Continuing our list of summer diseases, we have mycoses. They are fungal infections that can affect different areas of the body, such as mucous membranes, skin and scalp. The main symptom is itching in the affected area. In addition, they can generate pain, injuries and the emergence of stains, usually off-white.

The cause of ringworm is the person’s direct contact with the fungus. Normally, they live in humid and warm places – the pool or a trip to the waterfall are full dishes for this contamination. Treatment is done with the use of antifungals, which can be administered orally or topically (on the skin).

To avoid this problem, keep your skin dry at all times to prevent fungus proliferation. Also, do not share personal hygiene items (such as towels) and avoid places with a very large flow of people.

Food poisoning

Problems with food poisoning are also very common in the summer, especially thanks to the poor packaging of food during this period. Symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain.

The problem is most often caused by bacteria, which are present in foods that spoil quickly because of the heat.

The best prevention, therefore, is not to eat in places that seem suspicious, always preferring establishments that show concern for the storage of their products.

The treatment of food poisoning consists of hydrating the patient, who loses a lot of fluid through vomiting and diarrhea, and the use of medication to fight the bacteria that causes the problem.

Dengue, chikungunya e zika

Dengue, zika and chikungunya can pose a serious risk to our health. Each has different symptoms, which include fever, body spots, joint pain, pain behind the eyes, weakness, malaise, nausea and vomiting.

The three summer diseases have the same cause: the bite of a mosquito, known as Temples of the Egyptians. Prevention, therefore, is done by combating it. Avoiding stagnant water, using mosquito nets on window screens and making frequent use of repellents in the summer are some good strategies.

Treatment will depend on the ongoing illness. But it usually involves taking pain medication and drinking lots of fluids. More serious cases will require hospitalization of the patient.


Finally, we have dehydration. In summer, we lose a lot of fluid through sweat, and our body needs even more water to function properly.

Dehydration symptoms will vary according to their degree. However, most of the time, they involve thirst, mental confusion, headaches, feeling faint (or even fainting itself), retching, shortness of breath and many others.

The cause of dehydration is the loss of water in the heat, accompanied by low water intake by the patient. Preventing this problem is very simple: just drink water! Even if you’re not thirsty, sip your bottle several times throughout the day.

Treatment consists of rehydrating the patient. In more severe cases, this must be done in a hospital environment, through venous access.

What to do if any symptoms are noticed?

The best request is always to seek some kind of medical attention. With this, you guarantee a faster recovery and prevent the problem from becoming a snowball, further damaging your summer.

As we can see, summer illnesses are a very serious problem, but easy to prevent. So, don’t make a fool of yourself and try to avoid them — or, if you notice any symptoms, seek the opinion of a health professional to overcome this problem.

Take the opportunity to share this content on your social networks! This way, more people will be able to discover how to prevent these problems and, of course, enjoy the summer with more safety and well-being!

Technical review: Alexandre R. Marra, researcher at the Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein (IIEP) and permanent professor at the Graduate Program in Health Sciences at the Faculdade Israelita de Ciências da Saúde Albert Einstein (FICSAE).


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